See our websites!

"All the faithful, both clerical and lay, should be accorded a lawful freedom of research, freedom of thought and freedom of expression."

Gaudium et Spes, no 62.

research area:

The Women Deacons of the First Millennium


Lines of research as follows:

the findings are preliminary

1.1 How many women deacons of the first millennium do we know by name?

FINDING. We know more than 100 by name with, at times, details about their lives:
____________14 in Armenia and Syria,
____________52 in Asia Minor,
____________6 in Gaul [= today's France],
____________9 in Italy including Dalmatia [= today's Croatia],
____________14 in Palestine and Egypt,
____________and 20 in Greece.

1.2 Were these women deacons sacramentally ordained?

FINDING. The ordination of female deacons was essentially identical to that of male deacons. The ordination rite, especially in the Catholic Greek-speaking East, shows all the hallmarks of a full sacramental ordination.

1.3 Has the text of the original ordination rite for women deacons been preserved?

FINDING. Yes it has. We find it in all the main euchologia of the Catholic Church in the East open for inspection in libraries such as:
____________380 AD - the Apostolic Constitutions
____________780 AD - the Barberini gr. 336 (Vatican Library)
____________1020 AD - the Bessarion manuscript (Greek monastery of Krypta Ferrata)
____________1050 AD - the Coislin gr. 213 (National Library in Paris)
____________1100 AD - Vatican Manuscript gr. 1872 (Vatican Library)
____________1550 AD - the Codex Syriacus Vaticanus no 19 (Vatican Library).

1.4 What about the West? Do we know how women were ordained in the Latin-speaking part of the Catholic Church?

FINDING. We do. Historical data show that a truly sacramental ordination existed during the first nine centuries, then the rite degenerated into a mere initiation ceremony. See the overview here.

1.5 Have the Latin rites for ordaining women been preserved in manuscripts?

FINDING. Indeed. The original rite can be found in these sacramentaries:
____________750 AD - reconstructed 'German' Sacramentary,
____________811 AD - Cambrai ms. 164 (Cambrai Municipal Library),
____________850 AD - Ottobonianus lat. 313 (Paris),
____________850 Ad - Vatican Reginae lat. 337 (Vatican Library),
____________1050 AD - Leofric Missal of Exeter (Bodleian Library, Oxford),
____________1150 AD - Pontifical of St Blaise (National Library Vienna).
Other Pontificals contain a fully elaborated liturgy:
____________850 AD - the Ordo Romanus of Hittorp,
____________1030 AD - Pontifical of St Alban Abbey, Mainz,
____________1035 AD - Pontifical of the Abbey of Monte Cassino, Italy,
____________1050 AD - Pontifical Vallicella D5 (Vallicellan Library, Rome),
____________1050 AD - Pontifical of Salzburg, Austria (Vendome Municipal Library).

1.6 What were the tasks of the women deacons?

FINDING. They had important roles in the local parishes.
____________They instructed female catechumens and anointed them at baptism.
____________They cared for the sick and needy in the parish.
____________They had functions in the sanctuary and at the altar.
____________They had a supervisory role in the Christian assembly.

1.7 Were there other ministries of women during the first millennium?

FINDING. Yes, there were. In particular we note the following:
____________'Widows' in France, Italy and North Africa.
____________'Conhospitae' among the Celts in Britain, Ireland and France.
____________'Presbyterae' in the South of Italy and Sicily.
____________'Freilas' in the Basque territories of Spain and France.
____________The 'Abbess Sacerdos' in Britain and Germany.

1.8 Did Church Councils recognise the diaconate of women?

FINDING. Indeed. They are mentioned in the Council of Nicea I (325 AD), the Council Chalcedon (451 AD) and the Council of Trullo (692 AD).

1.9 Did Popes during the first millennium recognise the diaconate of women?

FINDING. They did. This applies also to key Popes such as Leo I (440-461), Gregory the Great (590 - 604) and Adrian I (772 - 795).

We welcome any contributions to our lines of inquiry, whether in the form of observations, critiques, submission of new material or the suggestion of other topics for research.



UK edition "NO WOMEN IN HOLY ORDERS? The Ancient Women Deacons" by John Wijngaards, Canterbury Press, London 2002;
USA edition: Women Deacons in the Early Church. Historical Texts and Contemporary Debates, Herder & Herder Crossroad, New York 2006;
Dutch edition: Vrouwen tot diaken gewijd. Historische feiten en actueel debat, Herne Heeswijk 2006 (Netherlands) and Altiora Averbode 2007 (Belgium).
UK editionUK edition
  "The Ordained Women Deacons of the Church's first Millennium" by John Wijngaards, new and expanded edition, Canterbury Press December 2011. enlarged edition